Number Bonds are the addition and subtraction of 2 numbers as **instantly recallable facts**. Our school use the structure provided by ‘Learn Its’ to help your child build up these facts, term by term.

Komodo have a great article on number bonds for parents here. It is crucial to note that ‘Learn It’ number bonds are not just 2 numbers that equal 10. They are any addition or subtraction calculation under 20 (e.g. 1+3, 17-9, 6+4, 14-5 etc). Maths No Problem also have a parent video on number bonds (second video down).

Here are some general pointers when helping your child build up their ability to recall number bonds as facts:

**Near doubles.**When learning numbers that are adjacent to each other (3+2, 4+5, 7+6 etc), guide your child to use their knowledge of doubles to help them. So 3+2 can be seen as either 2+2 then add 1 or 3+3 then subtract 1.- Use counters or lego bricks etc to group the double together, leaving the extra ‘1’ separate so your child can ‘see’ the double and the additional 1 needed.
- A tens frame is a useful model to use

**Commutativity**. This is understanding that addition can be done in any order. So knowing 5+3 as a fact means you also know 3+5.- Use counters or lego bricks etc to show the 2 numbers as 2 groups (e.g. 3+5 would have one group of 3 counters and another of 5 counters). Get your child to count the 2 groups. Now physically move the 2 groups around. Get your child to count the 2 groups again and discuss that it is the same total which means it doesn’t matter which order they are done.
- A tens frame is a useful model to use
- A part-part whole model is useful to use

**Inverse**. This is understanding that the inverse (opposite) of addition is subtraction. So that if you know 5+4=9 then you know 9-5=4.- Use counters or lego bricks etc to build 5+4, for example. Get your child to count these amounts to find 9. Then get them to push the 2 groups (5 and 4) together. Ask again, how many do we have? 9. Then ask then to subtract 5, moving 5 objects away from the 9. Ask how many is left? 4. Discuss that these were the same numbers as before but in reverse.
- A part-part whole model is useful to use

**Fact families**. a fact family consists of 4 calculations. These use understanding of commutativity and the inverse. The idea is that if your child knows 1 calculation as an instantly recallable fact, they can use that knowledge to very quickly know the other facts for that family. You can get your child to write a fact family down for an individual calculation they already know as a fact (making sure that fact is correct to start with!). As an example, the fact family for 8, 5 and 13 are:- 5+8=13
- 8+5=13
- 13-8=5
- 13-5=8

**Models to use to help your child**

**Tens frames**Click here for a Youtube video explaining tens frames**Part-Part-Whole**model Click here for a video aimed at children but is useful in understanding the part-part-whole model. It’s important to note that using physical counters and cups (or 3 drawn circles with 2 lines joining such as below) is an important step as your child can then move ‘3’ counters from one of the ‘parts’ and ‘4’ counters from the other ‘part’ both into the ‘whole’ to make ‘7’.